Vegetative Growth

December 16, 2010


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Cannabis enters the vegetative growth stage after four to six weeks of seedling growth. Vegetative growth is maintained in most strains with 16-24 hours of light daily. Plants grow faster when they receive more hours of light. Marijuana will continue vegetative growth a year or longer (theoretically forever) as long as it receives 18-24 hours of light every day. During the vegetative stage, green leafy growth is rapid. Healthy plants will grow an inch or more daily. Strong, fast vegetative growth is essential for a heavy harvest. Plants that are stunted now should not be induced to flower because they will yield much less. Hold them back until they are stronger.

Proper levels of nutrients are important for fast-growing vegetative plants. Make sure you are following the manufacturer's recommended dosage when fertilizing. Some plants can take much more fertilizer than others.

In general pure sativa and sativa-dominant strains require less fertilizer. The photo at left is a good example of a Haze strain that received very littie fertilizer and suffered from over fertilization. One of the best ways to learn a strain's fertilizer tolerance is to experiment so that you will know exactly how much fertilizer this specific strain needs.

In general pure indica and indica-dominant strains can take higher doses of fertilizer. The photo at left is a good example of an indica strain that received high doses offertilizer before·it started showing signs of overfertilization. Check with seed sellers and Internet forums to learn more about which strains can take high and low doses offertilizers. Check  for more specific information on fertilizer dosage and photos of under- and overfertilized plants.

When to Induce Flowering

After four to five weeks of vegetative growth, plants grow early male or female pre-flowers. Once these pre-flowers appear, plants are ready to enter the flowering growth stage.

Indoors you can control the life cycle of cannabis with light and dark. This light and dark cycle is called the photoperiod. Cannabis stays in the vegetative growth stage as long as it receives 18-24 hours oflight. Flowering is induced with 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness and 12 hours oflight per day. The 12/12 day/night photoperiod triggers most strains of cannabis to flower.

The vegetative growth stage is only two to four weeks long in most strains when grown indoors. Plants should be from 12-18 inches (30-45 cm) at the end ofvegetative growth. Ifthey are taller, artificial light will not be able to penetrate the foliage to the bottom.

Plants will need to be flushed at the end of the vegetative growth stage and possibly once in between after three weeks. I like to flush plants with three times the amount ofweak fertilizer solution as the amount of soil or soilless mix in the container.

This will flush or leach out all the extra built up toxic fertilizer saltsin the growing medium.

Mother plants enjoy a longer life from six months and occasionally as long as several years. Once a plant's sex is determined at pre-flowering, it can become a mother, clone, or breeding male.

More Info About Cannabis Seeds

December 16, 2010

• Pay with a money order, cash, or a business credit card with a business address to minimize on-line ordering risks. Ask seed vendor to destroy your payment information as soon as your order is processed.
• Ship seeds to a real address and name. Use some initials in the name and address, and misspell the name but still make it deliverable.
• Ship seeds to a third party-friend, family member, business, etc. They do not need to know what is in the package. Ask them not to open the package.
• Do not have seeds shipped to the same address where your garden is located
• Do not have packages sent that require a signature • Use a public e-mail address when ordering. Count on your e-mails being saved somewhere. Do not use this e-mail for other purposes.

• Increase security by using a proxy server to hide your computer's IPaddress. Learn more about proxy servers by searching for "proxy server security" on

• Patience is a virtue. International shipments take longer than domestic
shipments. Wait several days longer before you start searching for the shipment. Do not telephone or e-mail vendor until a reasonable time has passed.

Many national governments monitor all international telephone calls. Use a telephone card and call from a public telephone or one that cannot be traced back to you.

If you live in a country where seeds are illegal, call from a public telephone and use a calling card. Do not call the seed company from a telephone located at a grow house. Even if you are a medical marijuana grower in the United States of America, the seeds must pass the US border and federal law applies.

Seized Seeds: Note for USA Citizens

If Customs seizes your order ofseeds, they will send you a note informing you of that fact. We have never heard a report of a law enforcement official showing up at the door of a seed buyer.

You can see an actual letter at the site and http://www. mailing_ scams/ badboyletter.htm. You will receive the letter with the dreaded green tape that says "Opened by US Customs."

Seed Quantities and Pricing
Seeds are generally sold in packages of 5,10, and IS. Prices range from about $3 to $30 USD per seed. Often less expensive seeds are perfectly adequate for many growers' needs and desires. More expensive seeds are usually more stable and extra care has been taken to produce them. Furthermore, expensive seeds are often winners of recent cannabis cups or are more difficult to produce. My preference is to purchase seeds that are in the middle price range. Unless feminized, always purchase packages of 10-15 seeds, because the odds are that SO percent of the seeds will be female and the other halfmale. Ofthe desired female seeds, some will show more desirable characteristics than others.

Feminized Seeds
Feminized seeds are becoming very popular world- wide. When grown in a stress-free environment virtually all feminized seeds grow into female plants. They are more expensive than "normal" seeds. Normal seeds generally yield a SO/SO mix of male and female plants. Male plants are weeded out and female seeds are harvested.

Receiving Seeds
Checkseeds to ensure none are crushed. Ifseeds came in a see-through bag, do not open it. Call or e-mail the sellerimmediatelyto explaintheproblem.Ifone ora few are crushed, return all seeds for replacement.

Ifyou are not going to plant the seeds immediately, remove them and keep them from the original package. Keep seeds dry or they might start to germinate. Place them in a small dark vial or film canister with a dry packet of silicone, the kind you find in electronics packages. Label the crush-proof container before you place the seeds inside.

Storing Seeds Store seeds in a cool, dark, dry place. Make sure to label containers! Some seeds will remain viable for five years or longer when stored properly. When 50 percent of the stored seeds do not germinate, the average storage life is over. But seeds a year old or older often take longer to sprout and have a lower rate of germination. Seeds store for a long time when humidity is less than 5 percent and temperature is 35°-41°.

During seedling growth, the root system grows rapidly while green aboveground growth is slow.Water and heat are critical at this point of development. The new, fragile root system is very small and requires a small but constant supply ofwater and warmth. Too much water will drown roots, often leading to root rot and damping-off (rotting at the soil line). Lack of water will cause the developing root system to dry up. As the seedlings mature, some will grow faster, stronger, and appear healthier in general. A little heat now will help nurture small seed- lings to a strong start. Other seeds will sprout slowly and be weak and leggy. Most growers cull sickly, weak plants during the third to fifth week of growth, and focus attention on the remaining strong survivors.

Speed root growth by keeping the soil 2°-5° warmer than the ambient air tempera- ture. Ideally the ambient air temperature should be 7SoC (24°C) and the growing medium temperature 77°-80°C (25°-2rC). Use heating cables or mat to raise the temperature of the growing medium.


How To Obtain Cannabis Seeds

December 16, 2010

How to Obtain Seeds Get seeds from a grower who developed them. This is an excellent option because the grower usually knows the strain he is growing well and can tell you many details about growing it. Most such growers can also tell you about the qualities of the plant-taste, aroma, and high.

Find seeds in a bag of buds. Bag-seeds are okay because you will know more or less what the taste, aroma, and high of the final product will be like. However, you will not know the growth characteristics of the plant, and the plant will not be genetically stable. Often the seed will grow into a plant that has only some traits of the parents. It could also have intersex (hermaphro- dite) tendencies.

Order seeds via mail order or Internet. Also check cannabis web site forums for more information and recommendations.

Before you buy anything, send the seed company an e-mail with some questions and see how long it takes them to respond. A good seed company will respond in one to two business days with good answers to your questions. Ifyou do not get a response, do not order!

You may prefer to order from a company you can contact by telephone. Speak to a qualified representative who will provide good answers to your questions. Companies with an e-mail address and web site are usually okay to order from, but make sure they answer your e-mails promptly. Always call several companies and ask them specific questions about the strains they sell.

Packaging is important. Seeds are easily crushed, and packaging must protect them from damage. Many seed companies place seeds inside the channels of corrugated plastic (see photo left offilling seed packages at Dutch Passion). The corrugated plastic is then placed inside an envelope and mailed. The volume offirst class mail is great, and all sorting is done mechanically.

Letters under one ounce (28 grams) are not opened. Occasionally the Postal service will find such a seed shipment. When they do, they send a letter to the recipient stating they have confis- cated the seeds. No further action is taken.

Caution! Some seed merchants do not tell the truth about their seed stock. They sell you seeds that are not what they advertise them to be. Other companies take your money and do not ship the seeds. It is easy to overcome such problems with a little homework. Always check Greenman's site, for current information on seed banks. The site also lists seedbanks that do not advertise in catalogs.

Seed sellers are rated with one to four stars, depending on the quality and services they offer. Greenman gives security, shipping, and payment terms as well as a rating for customer complaints including an "X" rating for rip-offs as well as many other grievances.

Purchase seeds personally at a shop. Seeds are available at shops in many countries. Stores in Canada, Holland, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and several Central European countries sell seeds publicly. You can walk right in and buy them. Find such seed stores at the web sites listed by the magazines and cannabis fair guides on the following page. When you talk personally with a seed merchant, you get exact information and can ask as many questions as you want. Often the salesperson has personal stories about favorite strains.

Cannabis Strains

December 16, 2010

Technically and legally, all cannabis, whether rope or dope, is classified as Cannabis sativa. Regardless of origin, all cannabis is considered Cannabis sativa (c. sativa) under international law. However, according to Hemp Diseases and Pests, Dr. J. M . McPartland, R. C. Clarke, and D. P. Watson, (CAB International), Cannabis sativa can be further classified as: Cannabis sativa (= C. sativa var. sativa), Cannabis indica (= c. sativa var. indica), Cannabis ruderalis (= c. sativa var. spontanea), Cannabis afghanica (= c. sativa var. afghanica). Each has distinct growth patterns, look, smell, taste, etc.
Most popular strains of cannabis are a combination of two or more of the following: C. sativa, C. indica, C. ruderalis, and C. afghanica. But there are also many seeds with the genes from just one of the below.


Presoak seeds in a glass of plain (distilled) water for 24 hours. Do not soak longer or they could rot. At first seeds will float on top of the water. As water penetrates they sink to the bottom.

Within a few hours, seeds will sink to the bottom of the container. Seeds found floating the following day are probably not viable.

A small, white rootlet often emerges from strong viable seeds.


Use a dinner plate or a small container with a grate. A grate lets excess water drain away. If using a plate, tip it to drain off excess water.

Set a paper towel or cheesecloth on the plate or grate and moisten it with distilled water until saturated.

Pour the water out of the glass and place the seeds on the moist paper towels and cover the seeds with three more moist paper towels.

Drain off all excess water and put the moist seeds in a shadowy, warm location (70°-90°F, [21o-32°C]). The top of a refrigerator is ideal. Check daily and keep evenly moist but not soggy. Do not let seeds dry out or let water stand so oxygen is cut off to seeds. Let excess water drain away freely.


Once seeds have sprouted and the white sprout is visible, they are ready to be moved into the growing medium. Seeds that do not show a white rootlet now may never germinate. Do not throw them out, plant them. But such seeds might never germinate, and if they grow they could turn into weak plants.


Prepare a seed flat, Jiffy or rockwool cubes, etc. for planting sprouted seeds. Fill the seed flat with a store-bought seedling mix or make your own 50/50 mix of fine perlite and peat moss or coco peat.

Water the mix in the flat with plain water until it is completely saturated; water should run freely from the drainage holes in the bottom when the medium is saturated.

Seedlings do not have enough stored energy to force through too much soil before sprouting. Plant seeds twice as deep as the width of the seed. For example, plant an eighth- inch (3 mm) seed O.2S-inch (6 mm) deep. Make small indent about O.2S-inch (6 mm) in the growing medium, one for each seed in individual containers.

Use tweezers and carefully remove each sprouted seed and set it in the premade planting hole. Take care not to expose the tender rootlet to prolonged intense light or air. Point the white root downward.

Cover the sprouted seed with a O.2S-inch (6 mm) layer offine, moist planting mix.

Once covered, gently press the soil into firm contact with the sprouted seed.

Once planted, set the flat or rooting cubes of sprouted seedlings under the lamp. The photo above shows clones on the left and seedlings on the right.

Seeds set inside rockwool blocks often heave up and out. Germinate seeds before planting and make sure the white rootlet is at least D.S-inch (1.S cm) long to avoid this common problem.

STEPFIVE: Days10-14

In four to six days after planting, most of the seeds will have broken through the planting mix or emerged from the root cube.

Within a couple of days of emerging, the first smooth non-serrated cotyledon leaves emerge. Some seedlings will show their first signs of "true leaves" with the classic cannabis serrations and pointed tips.

After seven to ten days, all the seedlings will have cotyledon leaves and many will have their first set of true leaves.

In 10 to 14 days all the seedlings should have true leaves that are the same size or larger than cotyledons.

Some growers apply a mild (quarter-strength) fertilizer, but it is not necessary for another week. Most important now is to keep the soil evenly moist.

STEP SIX: Days21-30

Start feeding two to four weeks after seedlings have sprouted. Some growers wait until leaves yellow to begin feeding. Use a mild quarter- strength solution. If yellowing persists, give seedlings a little more fertilizer.

STEP SEVEN: Days21-30

Peat pellets or root cubes (both seedlings and clones) may be transplanted in two to three weeks or when the roots show through the sides. Feed with a dilute, quarter- strength fertilizer solution.

STEP EIGHT: Days26-30

Grow seedlings and clones under light fluorescent or dim HID light for the next couple of weeks, until they have two to three sets of true leaves. This is a critical time for plants, and they need extremely close attention. Do not let them dry out!

Potential Problems
Too much or too little light coupled with overwatering or underwatering are the main reasons for poor seedling growth. This sickly freak trifoliate seedling is the result of dodgy genetics as well.

Overwatering and underwatering are the biggest obstacles most growers face when germinating seeds and growing seedlings. Keep the soil uniformly moist, not waterlogged. Do not let the growing medium's surface dry for long. Keep it evenly moist. Setting root cubes or planting flats on a grate allows good drainage.

A shallow flat or planter with a heat pad under- neath may require daily watering, while a deep, one-gallon pot will need watering every three days or more. A properly watered flat of rockwool cubes needs water every three to five days when sprouting seeds. When the surface is dry (0.25- inch [6 mm] deep) it is time to water. Remember, there are few roots to absorb the water early in life, and they are very delicate.

Seeds do not need any extra hormones to germinate. Household water contains enough dissolved solids (food) to nourish seeds through their first few weeks oflife. Supplemental nutrients often disrupt internal chemistry.

Seeds and Germination

December 16, 2010

A seed contains all the genetic characteristics of a plant. Seeds are the result of sexual propagation and contain genes from each parent, male and female. Some plants, known as hermaphrodites, bear both male and female flowers on the same plant. The genes within a seed dictate a plant's size; disease and pest resistance; root, stem, leaf, and flower production; cannabinoid levels; and many other traits. The genetic makeup of a seed is the single most important factor dictating how well a plant will grow under artificial light or natural sunlight and the levels of cannabinoids it will produce.

Weak plants are the result of weak seeds and poor growing conditions. Strong, healthy parents and proper care yield strong seeds that germinate well. Strong seeds produce healthy plants and heavy harvests. Seeds stored too long will germinate slowly and have a high rate of failure. Vigorous seeds initiate growth within seven days or sooner. Seeds that take longer than a month to germinate could always be slow and produce less.

People grow seeds rather than clones because of"hybrid vigor," a phenomenon that causes Fl seeds that are the product of two true-breeding parents to grow about 25 percent stronger and bigger.

Typically, a grower who acquires 5-15 quality seeds from a reputable seed company germinates them all at once. Once germinated, the seeds are carefully planted and grown to adulthood. Normally some of the seeds will be male, some will grow slowly, and two or three seeds will grow into strong "super" females. Of these super females, one will be more robust and potent. Select this super female to be the clone mother. Mature seeds that are hard, beige to dark brown, and spotted or mottled have the highest germination rate. Soft, pale, or green seeds are usually immature and should be avoided. Immature seeds germinate poorly and often produce sickly plants. Fresh, dry, mature seeds less than a year old sprout quickly and grow robust plants.

Germinating and Planting Seeds

To germinate, seeds need moisture, warmth, and air (oxygen).

Soaking seeds in water allows moisture to penetrate the protective seed shell within minutes. Moisture continues to wick in to activate the dormant hormones. In 24-72 hours, hormones activate and send signals to produce a small white rootlet (radicle).

Moisture is critical now. There must be a constant stream of moisture to transport nutrients, hormones, and water in order to carryon life processes. For best results use distilled water. Letting germinated seeds suffer moisture stress now will stunt seedling growth.

Cannabis seeds grow best at 78°F (2SoC). Low temperatures (below 70°F [21°C]) delay germination. High temperatures (above 90°F [32°C]) cause poor germination. Once germinated, move seedlings to a slightly cooler growing area and increase light levels. Avoid high temperatures and low light levels, which cause lanky growth.

Air (oxygen)
Seeds need air to germinate. Moist, soggy growing mediums will cut off oxygen supplies and the seed will literally drown. Planting seeds too deeply also causes poor germination. Seedlings do not have enough stored energy to force through too much soil before sprouting. Plant seeds twice as deep as the width
of the seed. For example, plant a 0.12S-inch (0.3 mm) seed 0.2S-inch (6mm) deep.

• Seeds not rooted by day 30 will probably grow slowly
• Once seeds are rooted, cell growth accelerates; stem, foliage,
and roots develop quickly
• Seedlings develop into full vegetative growth within four to
six weeks of germination

More Security Tips

December 16, 2010

• Do not steal electricity
• Electric bill-is it the same as the previous tenants?
• Ground all electrical outlets and connections
• Inspect electrical connections for signs of heat damage and repair immediately
• Keep electrical use to a reasonable amount, and keep the air clean around the house

• Do not let grow room air-conditioner water drain outdoors; it smells like cannabis
• Discharge odor-laden air via a roof vent or chimney
• Use a carbon filter and an ozone generator to neutralize the marijuana fragrance

• Muffle all noise from fans, ballasts, pumps, etc.
• Use insulated ducting
• Put rubber or foam fittings on all fans to reduce noise and vibrations
• Set ballasts on a noise-reducing base

• Never trust anybody-friends, family, brother, sister, children, even your mother!
• Have a regular schedule and simple lifestyle
• Have a reason for extra electrical consumption
• Don't flash a large cash income. Buy large assets such as houses and cars over time
• Have a regular job and a reason for your activities
• Have few visitors and keep to yourself
• Keep a low profile and be a good neighbor and citizen
• Keep your property clean and in excellent repair
• Drive a street-legal car with no outstanding warrants on the drivers
• Pay bills on time


December 16, 2010

Sadly we have to worry about security to grow a simple plant that has been on this earth since long before man set foot on it. About 70 years ago Prohibition started in the United States of America, Land of the Free. Today this crazy, paranoid prohibition has progressed and it is necessary to grow gardens in secure locations.

Security has several facets and levels. First you must restrict access to your garden. Do this by securing the perimeter around the grow house or wherever the garden is located. You will need to control everything and everybody that enters and exits the area in proximity to the garden. You can have visitors in your home, but always keep the garden under lock and key to restrict access. Make sure there are no telltale signs ofgrowing, the most obvious ofwhich are fragrance, light leaks, noise, and growing supplies or debris.

External forces could be tipped off to the garden's existence by your telling others about the garden; telephone conversations; tracking you home from hydroponics stores, other grow houses, or dealers' houses; lifestyle; computer data tracking; and thermal imaging devices. Choose your friends and romantic partners carefully. Most often security breaches are the result of a jealous or vindictive friend, lover, or partner. Many times these friends and partners are pressured by police to turn you in.

Security Hit List
• Never tell anybody about any garden
• Never show your garden to anyone!
• Do not throw out any garbage that could prove
that you grow
• Never have seeds or grow products sent directly
to your home
• Do not visit other grow houses, wild parties,
real criminals, etc.
• Take a friend's car or have a friend take you to
the grow store, and go seldom

Thermal Image Technology Thermal image technology is illegal in the USA as a means to secure a search warrant, but in Canada, Holland, and other countries authorities fly grids over urban areas to look for possible growers. Nonetheless, thermal image technology is seldom a problem for small growers who use less than 2000 watts of light.

Larger growers outwit thermal imaging devices by keeping lights on during daylight hours to confuse the technology. They further safeguard their grow operation by cooling exhaust air and expelling it under a well-insulated grow house so it does not leave a heat trail. Learn more about thermal imaging at http://en.

More Security Details
Call grow and seed stores from a secure or remote telephone Pay all bills and make all purchases with cash Pay for mail-order merchandise with a money order
Use a digital camera to take photos of your garden. Do not use a film camera!
Have a guard dog
Buy a fire extinguisher rated to put out wood, paper, grease, oil, and electrical fires
Unload grow supplies a little bit at a time or from within a locked garage
Put the telephone, electricity, garbage, etc., in a friend's name
Grow in a rented home
Eliminate light leaks Make Internet postings that may incriminate you from a "safe" computer via a proxy server

Cannabis Life Cycle

December 16, 2010

Cannabis Life Cycle and Indoor Growing
Cannabis cultivated indoors needs light (1), air (2), a growing medium (3), warmth (4), nutrients (5), and water (6). As explained earlier in this chapter, you can control all these needs in your indoor garden and achieve optimum results.

Cannabis is a short-day plant. In nature, it flowers when autumn days are short and nights are long. Outdoors, cannabis normally grows as an annual plant, completing its life cycle within one year. A seed that is planted in the spring will grow through the summer and flower in the fall, producing more seeds.

Cannabis goes through three distinct stages of growth: seedling, vegetative, and flowering. Most varieties or strains will stay in the vegetative growth stage as long as they receive 18–24 hours of light and 6–0 hours of darkness. Most strains of cannabis will flower when they receive 12 hours of light and 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness.

Indoors you can use this knowledge to control the life cycle and harvest up to six crops a year.

Seedling Growth
Seed germination is induced with moisture, heat, and air which activate hormones within the seed. Within 24– 72 hours the seed’s coating splits and a white rootlet emerges and continues to grow. The Nebula seeds (right) have been germinating for 24 hours.
After three to seven days of germination, the rootlet grows downward and a sprout with seed leaves pushes upwards in search of light. Plants like the Jamaican Pearls (right) continue the seedling growth stage about a month. During this stage the seed establishes a root system and grows a stem and a few leaves. Seedlings need 16–18 hours of light to grow strong and healthy.
Vegetative Growth
Vegetative growth is maintained in this AK-47 and other strains by giving plants 18–24 hours of light every day. As the plant matures, the roots take on specialized functions of transporting and storing food. The root tips push farther and farther into the soil in search of more water and food. The delicate root hairs actually absorb water and nutrients. Delicate root hairs will dry up and die without water. They are very frail and are easily damaged by light, air, and bumbling hands if moved or exposed.

The stem also grows upward producing new buds along the stem. The central or terminal bud of this Thaitanic carries growth upward; side or lateral buds turn into branches or leaves. The stem carries water and nutrients from the roots to the growing buds, leaves, and flowers. If the stem is bound too tightly by string or other tie-downs, it will cut the flow of life-giving fluids, thereby strangling the plant. The stem also supports the plant.
Often indoor plants develop weak stems and may need to be staked up, especially during flowering. Bending and training plants also makes best use of light indoors.

Chlorophyll (the substance that gives plants their green color) converts carbon dioxide (CO2) from air, water, and light energy into carbohydrates and oxygen. This process is called photosynthesis. Tiny breathing pores called stomata are located on the underside of the leaf and funnel CO2 into contact with the water. The stomata open and close to regulate the flow of moisture, preventing dehydration. The stomata also permit the outflow of water vapor and waste oxygen.

Cannabis grown from seed grows pre-flowers after the fourth week of vegetative growth. You can see a male pre-flower nub in the photo above. They generally appear between the fourth and sixth node from the bottom of the plant. Canna- bis plants are normally either all male or all female. However, occasionally an intersex plant with both male and female flowers will appear. Each sex has its own distinct flowers. Pre-flowers will be either male or female. Growers remove and destroy the males (or use them for breeding stock) because they have low levels of cannabinoids (chemical components of marijuana: THC, CBD, CBN, etc.). The most desirable female plants are cultivated for their high THC content.

Flowering is triggered in most strains of cannabis like the Chronic bud (below) by 12 hours of darkness and 12 hours of light every 24 hours. Once flowering is induced with the 12/12 light/ dark schedule, they are at peak ripeness in 7–12 weeks. Plants that developed in tropical regions often start flowering under more light and less darkness.

Flowering Male Plants
Male seedlings that were not removed during pre-flowering are removed as soon as male flowers are visible so that they do not pollinate females. A grower removed the Super Silver Haze plant (left) from his garden as soon as he saw the male flowers.

Flowering Female “Sinsemilla” Plants
Unpollinated female flower buds develop without seeds, known as “sinsemilla.” Sinsemilla flower buds continue to swell and produce more resin while waiting for male pollen to successfully complete their life cycle. After weeks of heavy flower and cannabinoid-laden resin production, THC production peaks out and buds are ready to harvest.

Seed Crops
When both male and female flowers are in bloom, pollen from the male flower lands on the female flower, thus fertilizing it. The male dies after producing and shedding all his pollen. Seeds form and grow within the female flowers such as the seeds of the Sweet Diesel (left). You can collect the seeds roughly six to eight days after pollination.

Mother Plants
Select strong, healthy, potent mother plants. Give mothers 18–24 hours of light daily so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. Cut branch tips from mother plants and root them. The rooted cuttings are called “clones.” Cultivating several strong, healthy mother plants is the key to having a consistent supply of all-female clones.

Cut branch tips and root them to form clones. Clones take 10–20 days to grow a strong healthy root system. Give clones 18–24 hours of light so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. Once the root system is established, transplant clones into larger containers. Now they are ready to grow for one to four weeks in the vegetative growth stage before being induced to flower.

Growing Cannabis Indoors-Intro

December 15, 2010

The basics necessary to grow indoors are easy. Find a secure location, plant good seeds or clones, create the proper climate—air, light water, nutrients, drainage, and growing medium—and start growing. Seeds soon turn into seedlings, and then put on leafy vegetative growth. They show male or female pre-flowers at the end of the vegetative growth stage. Once flowering is induced, your marijuana plants will be ready to harvest in about two months. Read on and fill your mind with images to learn all the details!

Cannabis (aka marijuana or marihuana) seeds like these California Orange are easy to purchase via mail order. You can buy them from seed companies that advertise in the magazines High Times, Cannabis Culture, Soft Secrets, Weed World, Cañamo, Grow, Dolce Vita, etc. Or you can find them on the Internet by typing “marijuana seeds” into the com search engine. Sometimes you will find seeds in buds.

Clones are branch tips cut from female marijuana plants and rooted. Clones are desirable because they are female and will flower sooner than seeds. A crop of clones can be harvested in about three months. Clones are not available by mail order. You must get them from a grower, friend of a grower, or medical marijuana cooperative.

A Space to Grow
A grow space is easy to find in any home or structure. The grow space should be enclosed so that you can control the environment inside where the plants will grow. You can close off a corner of the basement, the attic, or a room on the main floor to make a grow room. Use plastic, wood or brick to enclose the room. You can also convert a closet into a grow room, or you can purchase a prefabricated grow cabinet or closet.

Temperature Control
The temperature and humidity in grow space will need to be con- trolled. The ideal temperature for cannabis growth is about 75°F (24°C). The ideal humidity for cannabis growth is 50–70 percent for pre-flowering and 50 percent for flowering plants. Chances are the environment will need to be heated or cooled a little to maintain the ideal temperature and humidity. Often a ventilation fan (see below) is all you need to keep the temperature and humidity perfect. Learn more about heating and cooling.

Air Circulation
Marijuana uses carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. The CO2 is used up quickly around foliage, and the air must be circulated so that new CO2 comes in contact with leaves. You will need an oscillating circulation fan to keep the air stirred up and CO2 readily available for plant intake. A circulation fan will also mix the hot air on top and cool air below so the temperature is even throughout the room.

Air Ventilation
Marijuana uses all the available CO2 in a room pretty fast. A ventilation fan expels used CO2-poor air. The vent fan also removes hot, humid air from the grow space. Fresh, cool, dry air rich in CO2 is drawn into the room via a fresh-air intake vent.

Provide light with fluorescent tubes, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), metal halide lamps, or high pressure (HP) sodium lamps. Each lamp has positive points and limiting points. Fluorescent lamps are best suited to growing seedlings and clones. Inexpensive CFLs can grow small crops from start to finish. The best CFLs for growing are available in wattages from 65–125. More expensive and versatile metal halide and HP sodium high intensity discharge (HID) lamps are available in many wattages (from 150–1500) and color spectrums. Both can be used to grow crops from beginning to end.

Water and Drainage
Ordinary tap water is usually adequate to grow cannabis. If it is okay to drink, it is usually okay for your plants. If your water tastes bad and is full of sodium and other minerals, you may need to treat it with a reverse osmosis filter. Such control is usually not necessary when growing with soil.

“Hydroponics” means growing in a soilless mix that serves to anchor plant roots. Hydroponics allows the grower to control fertilizer (nutrient) levels and uptake by plants. Hydroponic grow mediums provide more air space around roots, and nutrient uptake is faster than in soil gardens. Hydroponic gardens require more control of water, pH, nutrients, and the root-zone environment. Hydroponic gardens can be very simple and inexpensive or complex and expensive.

Growing in soil is simple and easy. Always purchase good soil that drains well. If you cannot find good soil, mix your own from quality components. Organic soil gardens boast the best flavor and fragrance.

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